We know there are soil health benefits to increased rotational diversity and that these can have long-term benefits for soil productivity but what about the economic considerations? The economics of winter pea rotations have been a substantial barrier to adoption. Until 2009, peas planted in the autumn could only be marketed as ‘feed-quality’ and the farm gate value of feed peas is 50-60% less than that of food peas. US marketing regulations were changed in 2009 so that peas could be marketed based on their seed characteristics, not the season they were planted. When the marketing regulations were changed, breeders started developing food-quality winter peas – peas with large, smooth seeds and clear seed coats. In 2021, the USDA-ARS released the first three food-quality winter pea cultivars, USDA Dint, USDA MiCa, and USDA Klondike, and this may make fallow replacement more profitable. Switching from spring-sown to autumn-sown has many benefits for farmers in areas with similar annual precipitation to the study areas (17’’ and 24.5’’) including higher yields, shifting field work from unpredictable springs to autumn, and less water use than wheat.