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Wheat & Small Grains Timely Topics – Weed Management

Jointed Goatgrass Biotype Resistant to Beyond Discovered in Eastern Washington

The first case of jointed goatgrass resistant to imazamox, the active ingredient in Beyond herbicide, has been confirmed in Eastern Washington. A team of Washington State University scientists, led by Dr. Ian Burke, publicly announced their findings in the January 2017 issue of Wheat Life magazine.

Clearfield wheat varieties were first planted in Eastern Washington on a widespread basis beginning in the fall of 2003. The fact that it has taken 13 years to discover the first imazamox-resistant jointed goatgrass biotype is a bit of a surprise. Ian Burke said “If you had asked me back when I started working on this in 2006 when to expect to see resistance to Beyond in jointed goatgrass, I would have said ‘we should see it already!’”

The resistant biotype is 144 times more resistant than susceptible goatgrass plants. To see even a little response in the resistant plants, researchers had to use 6x the labeled use rate of Beyond. Jeannette Rodriguez, a WSU graduate student, is working to identify the mechanism of resistance. It is known that resistance in this instance was not the result of a cross between Clearfield wheat and jointed goatgrass.

Growers and fieldmen should scout jointed goatgrass patches in fields that they manage and submit samples that they have concerns about to the WSU Herbicide Resistance Testing Program. The Extension publication “Strategies to Minimize the Risk of Herbicide-resistant Jointed Goatgrass” provides information on the control of jointed goatgrass with an emphasis on prevention and management of herbicide resistance.

BASF issued the following statement in response to this discovery: “BASF is supporting WSU research aimed at preserving the long-term benefits of the Clearfield® Production System – with an emphasis on resistant jointed goatgrass. A multifaceted resistance management program is essential to preserve the long-term benefits of Beyond herbicide and the Clearfield Production System. Wheat producers are asked to help protect and prolong the usefulness of these technologies by following the specific recommendations and requirements highlighted in the Clearfield Stewardship Guidelines to help prevent the onset of herbicide resistance in weeds.”


For more information, contact Dr. Ian Burke at icburke@wsu.edu or 509-335-2858.

Winter Wheat Herbicide Efficacy Tables Helps Growers Narrow Herbicide Options

Weeds are the bane of many farm operations, and consequently, farmers spend more money on herbicides than any other production input other than fertilizer. However, it can be difficult to choose what herbicide or herbicides to use. There are many herbicides to choose from, each with their own strengths and weaknesses. Additionally, there is a… » More ...

Herbicide Resistance Has Been Around for 60 years

Diversity of Russian Thistle

Glyphosate–resistant Russian-thistle was identified in Washington in 2015. Other weeds resistant to glyphosate have been identified in the state in recent years, including prickly lettuce, horseweed, kochia, and Italian ryegrass. Many people think that herbicide resistance is a recent phenomenon associated with the overuse of glyphosate-resistant crops, but as a recent article released by the Weed Science Society of America states, herbicide-resistant weeds predate glyphosate-resistant crops by 40 years.

The use of glyphosate-resistant crops (there are no glyphosate-resistant wheat varieties) is very limited in the dryland crop production systems of Eastern Washington and yet herbicide-resistant weeds are a growing concern for many Washington wheat farmers. Resistant weeds can evolve whenever a single approach to weed management is used repeatedly, whether that approach is chemical, mechanical, or cultural. A diverse, integrated approach to weed management is the first line of defense against herbicide-resistant weeds.

Washington wheat growers who suspect that they may have developed a weed that is resistant to an herbicide may want to submit a sample to the WSU Resistance Testing Program.


For questions contact Drew Lyon (drew.lyon@wsu.edu or 509-335-2961) or Ian Burke (icburke@wsu.edu or 509-335-2858), who are Weed Scientists at Washington State University in Pullman.

Ammonium Sulfate as a Water Conditioner to Improve Glyphosate Efficacy

Water is a universal solvent that serves as the primary carrier for pesticide applications. The quality of the water used as a carrier can have a large influence on the performance of herbicides such as glyphosate. Dissolved cations such as calcium, magnesium, zinc, iron, and manganese form complexes with glyphosate that reduce its efficacy.

Ammonium sulfate (AMS) conditions water by reacting with the dissolved cations to form insoluble sulfates that will not react with glyphosate. Spray grade AMS should be added to the spray tank and thoroughly mixed before adding glyphosate.

Here is a handy calculator that uses data from a standard water quality test to determine the amount of AMS to add to your spray tank, in pounds of AMS per 100 gallons of water. The calculator uses an equation developed at North Dakota State University (Nalewaja and Matysiak, 1993) to determine the required amount of AMS needed to neutralize the effects of cations in the water on glyphosate activity. Adding more AMS than called for to neutralize the effects of cations may improve glyphosate activity by providing extra N that helps weak acid herbicides like glyphosate pass through cell membranes. The addition of 8.5 to 17 pounds of AMS per 100 gallons of water is generally recommended to improve glyphosate activity. Liquid forms of AMS are equally effective if used at equivalent rates.

Give the calculator a try and see what you think.


Questions may be directed to Wayne Thompson wayne.thompson@wsu.edu (509-524-2691) or to Drew Lyon drew.lyon@wsu.edu (509-335-2961).

Washington State University