The Washington Grain Commission held its 2017 Wheat and Barley Research Review on February 13 and 14. This is an annual event that gives growers and other industry members the opportunity to see results from research the Commission funded the previous year and hear about new research ideas that the Commission will consider for funding in the coming year.
Researchers from WSU and from the USDA-ARS came together to give brief presentations on their proposed research or updates on their previously funded research and answer questions from Commissioners and growers. The 2016-2017 Research Progress Report is available for review on the Wheat and Small Grains website.
Rust Update, July 11, 2017
- Rusts in the Palouse Region
We were checking fields of wheat and barley in the Palouse region (including Whitman County of Washington and Latah County of Idaho) on July 7, 2017. Winter wheat crop ranged from soft dough to almost mature, spring wheat crop from boot to milk, and spring barley from headed to milk. The rust situations are the following.
Wheat stripe rust. Active stripe rust pustules were still found on green leaves of some winter wheat fields in both commercial and experimental fields. For spring wheat, stripe rust reached 100% on susceptible varieties in experimental fields around Pullman. In commercial fields, stripe rust was low, less than 1% incidence and up to 10% severity in most fields checked. The low level of stripe rust in commercial fields is due to cultivar resistance and/or application of fungicides in the early season. With the dry and hot weather conditions in the last couple of weeks and similar weather conditions forecasted for the next two to three weeks, HTAP resistance in many spring wheat cultivars has become effective and stripe rust development will be slowed down or stopped. Except fields of very late crops and still have good soil moisture, fungicide application is no longer needed.
Barley stripe rust. Low to moderate levels of barley stripe rust were observed in experimental fields. In commercial fields, stripe rust was found at very low level in only one barley field in Latah County.
Wheat leaf rust. In monitoring and variety trial nurseries, leaf rust was found in plots of several winter wheat. In commercial fields, leaf rust was also found in several winter wheat fields near Farmington in Washington and Potlatch in Idaho. Incidence was less than 1% and severity less than 10%. No leaf rust was found in any spring wheat fields.
Stem rust. No stem rust was found in any of winter and spring wheat fields, and nor in barley fields.
- Rusts in Western Washington
In our experimental nurseries at Mount Vernon in western Washington, wheat stripe rust reached 100% severity on susceptible spring wheat by the end of last week. Barley stripe rust was up to 60% severity. Wheat leaf rust was low. In contrast to the situations of severe barley leaf rust in the recent years, barley leaf rust was much lower this year, which could be due to the relatively late planting.
- Wheat Stripe Rust in the US and Canada
Wheat stripe rust has been reported in Texas, Louisiana, Arkansas, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Kansas, Washington, Oregon, Wisconsin, Virginia, Delaware, Tennessee, Michigan, Kentucky, Nebraska, Indiana, Georgia, Idaho, Arizona, California, Montana, Colorado, South Dakota, Minnesota, North Dakota, and New York. Wheat stripe rust has been reported in Alberta, Ontario, Manitoba, and Saskatchewan provinces of Canada.
View the July 2017 Stripe Rust Update in pdf format.
WSU Small Grain’s Cereal Variety Testing Program field days are well underway. Recently, Ryan Higginbotham, Regional Extension Specialist for the Cereal Variety Testing program at WSU, and Michael Pumphrey, Endowed Chair and WSU Spring Wheat Breeder, were interviewed by Scott Yates, Director of Communications at the Washington Grain Commission at the Reardan Field Day, which was held June 28.
In episode 29 of the Wheat All About It! podcast, Plotting Wheat’s Way Forward, Higginbotham and Pumphrey discuss field day preparation and this summer’s weather as it relates to the possibility of incurring late maturity alpha amylase activity and falling numbers discounts.
Don’t forget to subscribe to all of the Wheat All About It! podcasts on iTunes. Search for Wheat All About It. A summary of the podcasts, including many highlighting WSU researchers is available at the Washington Grain Commission website.
Recently, Aaron Esser was interviewed by Scott Yates, director of communications at the Washington Grain Commission for an update on wireworms. In episode 26 of the Wheat All About It! podcast, Esser talks about where we were and where we are today thanks to the great strides WSU researchers have made in understanding and controlling wireworms in Eastern Washington.
Listen to episode 26, Where We Are with Wireworms, and don’t forget to subscribe to the Wheat All About It! podcast on iTunes. Search for Wheat All About It. A summary of podcasts, including many highlighting WSU researchers is available at the WGC website: wagrains.org.
We have received a number of phone calls recently concerning crop damage in peas treated with herbicides containing the active ingredient clethodim. Clethodim is an ACCase inhibitor (Group 1) used to control grass weeds in broadleaf crops. There is no clethodim activity on broadleaf crops like peas. So why is there sometimes injury to peas?
Clethodim products containing 26.4% or 2 pounds of clethodim per gallon (for example, Arrow 2 EC, Clethodim 2 EC, and Select 2 EC) contain as much as 70% petroleum distillates. This high level of petroleum distillates, combined with the required crop oil concentrate and liquid fertilizer additives, can act as a sprayer cleaner, dislodging old herbicide residues that are embedded in tank walls or hoses, resulting in unwanted herbicide residue in the sprayer liquid. It is these residues, and not the clethodim, that are injuring the peas.
This type of damage, which is not unique to clethodim products, can be avoided by properly cleaning sprayers between applications, particularly when changing what crop is being treated. While proper sprayer cleanouts are time-consuming, it can save a lot of money and misery. Removing Herbicide Residues from Agricultural Application Equipment is an excellent publication by Purdue Extension that can help you do a good job of sprayer cleanout and possibly save you headaches and dollars down the road.
Stripe Rust Update June 16, 2017
- Wheat Stripe Rust
In the Pacific Northwest, winter wheat in most areas has passed the flowering stage. Thanks to planting of resistant varieties and widely use of fungicides in the early season with some fields sprayed twice, stripe rust in most fields of winter wheat is under control. Depending upon areas and various times of planting, spring wheat crop varies from Feekes 4 to Feekes 10.5.3. Stripe rust has developed rapidly in spring wheat fields with severity on susceptible varieties ranging from 5% to 100% depending upon area and planting date.
Because the cooler weather and good moisture in this week, stripe rust will likely develop more in the next couple of weeks. For fields of moderate susceptible and susceptible varieties (stripe rust ratings 5 – 9) of winter wheat, fungicide application is needed if the crop has not passed Feekes 10.5 and fungicide was applied more than two weeks ago. For spring wheat, fungicide is needed at the time of herbicide application for fields planted with moderately susceptible and susceptible varieties if not done so. For fields of fungicide applied about three weeks ago, another application is needed. For varieties previously reported to be resistant to moderately resistant (ratings 1-4), check fields and consider fungicide application if active rust pustules are seen and severity reaches 5%.
We took stripe rust notes in our experimental fields of spring wheat on June 15, most plants passed the flowering stage and the susceptible check had 100% severity. Table 1 shows the data and ratings for the spring wheat variety trials for reference. As these data were from only Lind and rust races can be different in different areas, use these data together with the data from the last year for considering to use or not to use fungicides.
Since the last report on May 19, wheat stripe rust has been reported in South Dakota, Minnesota, North Dakota, and New York in addition to the previous reports in Texas, Louisiana, Arkansas, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Kansas, Washington, Oregon, Wisconsin, Virginia, Delaware, Tennessee, Michigan, Kentucky, Nebraska, Indiana, Georgia, Idaho, Arizona, California, Montana, and Colorado. Wheat stripe rust has been reported in Alberta, Ontario, and Manitoba provinces of Canada.
- Barley stripe rust
In our spring crop nurseries at Lind (Adams County, WA), stripe rust was uniform on susceptible varieties with severity up to 40%. For this dryland area, this is the most severe barley stripe rust we have seen in the last 20 years, partially due to the 6-inch higher-than-average precipitation this year, although much lower than wheat stripe rust in this location. Barley stripe rust has not been observed in the Palouse region yet. In addition to Washington, barley stripe rust has been reported in California and Oregon.
Fungicide application may be needed to control barley stripe rust this year. Check barley fields for stripe rust, if severity reaches 5%, apply fungicide. The fungicides that control wheat stripe rust also control barley stripe rust.
Table 1. Stripe rust data of the 2017 WSU Spring Wheat Variety Trials at Lind, WA*
|SY Saltese (SY 04PN3024-2)||SWS||4||2||15||2|
|Ryan (WA 8214)||SWS||15||3||20||3|
|Tekoa (WA 8189)||SWS||17||2||10||2|
|WA 8236 CL+||SCI||18||2||5||1|
|WA 8265 CL+||SWSI||19||5||30||4|
|WA 8266 CL+||SWSI||20||5||30||4|
|AvS (Susceptible check)||21||8||100||9|
|LCS Iron (11SB0096)||HRS||32||2||15||2|
|LCS Luna (10SB0087-B)||HRS||33||2||10||2|
|LCS Buck Pronto||HRS||34||7||30||6|
|SY Coho (04W40292R)||HRS||37||2||5||1|
|SY Selway (04PN3001-2)||HRS||38||2||10||2|
|AvS (Susceptible check)||41||8||100||9|
|WA 8279 CL+||HRSI||58||3||20||3|
|WA 8280 CL+||HRSI||59||3||15||2|
|AvS (Susceptible check)||61||8||100||9|
* IT = infection type; % = severity based on infected leaf areas; and ratings are in a 1-9 scale with 1 for most resistant and 9 for most susceptible.
View the June 2017 Stripe Rust Update in PDF format.
A newly published Extension Bulletin, PNW696, is titled “Integrated Pest Management for the Wheat Head Armyworm Complex in the Pacific Northwest.”
Since 2005, the wheat head armyworm has caused intermittent damage to wheat and barley crops in the PNW.
The two insect species found responsible were initially dubbed the “true” and “false” wheat head armyworms. As these species are closely related, we now refer to them as the wheat head armyworm complex (WHAC).
This publication covers identification, biology, and integrated pest management for WHAC. We emphasize pest monitoring and field scouting methods, and also discuss natural insecticides.
Authors are Diana Roberts, WSU Extension; Silvia I. Rondon, OSU Extension; Peter J. Landolt, USDA-ARS.